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47 Kavaka Volume

From the Editor's Desk

This issue of Kavaka- being Transactions of Mycological Society of India is dedicated to the fond memory of Late Professor K.S.Thind who established a school of Mycology with a dedicated team of Research Students at Botany Department, Panjab University, Chandigarh  and brought international recognition  to the Indian Mycology through his quality research in recognition of which he was  elected as the first Chairman of International Mycological Association Committee for Asia (IMACA) founded on September 2, 1977 during the second International Mycological Congress (IMC 2) held in Thampa, Florida, USA.   Mycological Society of India in its last meeting held at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, in recognition of his contributions, decided to bring out a special issue of the Journal on the eve of the beginning of centennial year of Professor Thind's birth which started on 31st October, 2016 and will end on 30th October, 2017.  On personal front, he has been a teacher of my teacher Late Professor S. S. Saini, so I take this pride to represent the third generation of the legacy started by Late Professor K.S.Thind at Panjab University, Chandigarh. I owe a great debt of gratitude to him for encouragement and guidance during my formative days when I was a Ph. D. Scholar.  It is yet another opportunity for me to feel honoured to be associated with this centenary issue which contain research and review articles contributed by renowned mycologists of India, five of whom are his direct students.

My sincere thanks are due to all the authors of the articles and the reviewers for their significant contributions without which the timely release of this issue of the Journal would not have been possible.

November  16,  2016
N.S. Atri
Department of Botany
 Punjabi University,
Patiala-147002, Punjab







 Contributions of Professor K.S.Thind to the development of Mycology in India

Indu Bhushan Prasher

Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
Corresponding author email: chromista @yahoo.co.in

I feel deeply honoured to have been asked to write about the contributions of a doyen of Indian mycology Professor Kartar Singh Thind, popularly known as K.S.Thind, for publication in special volume of KAVAKA being dedicated to him in his birth centenary year (2017).  I have had an opportunity to know him as a student while pursuing my doctorate at Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh and then as my senior colleague, although I was not his direct student but I am one of the fortunate ones to have taken my initial lessons in mycology and plant pathology from two of his illustrious students, Late Professor S.S.Saini, being M.Sc. student at Punjabi University, Patiala and then from Late Professor G.S.Rawla at Panjab University, Chandigarh under whose guidance I earned my doctorate. I have no hesitation in taking this pride to inherit the legacy of hard work and dedication from this legendry mycologist and carry it forward at a place where Professor Thind established a school of mycology in his own right and attracted the attention of National and International mycologists of repute including Professor T.S.Sadasivan, Professor C.V.Subramanian, Professor E.J.H.Corner, Professor R.P.Korf and many others listed in the ongoing account. On my own behalf and on behalf of mycological fraternity, I appreciate the effort of Mycological Society of India for remembering the contributions of Professor K.S.Thind by bringing out a dedicated issue of KAVAKA on his birth centenary which falls on 30th October, 2017.

Professor K.S. Thind:  The Humane Scientist
T. N. Lakhanpal
Department of Biosciences, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla
Corresponding author Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(Submitted in18-06-2016; Accepted on 20-08-2016)

In this manuscript besides recollecting my life long memories of  association with my revered teacher Late Professor K.S.Thind,  I have tried to give a glimpse of my work on myxomycetes, morels , agarics and boletes, the three areas of research  in which I was introduced by this great man.  Along with key to the Indian species of Hemitrichia, a new species  H. thindii in honour of late Professor K. S. Thind  has also been described.
Keywords : Slime moulds , plasmodia, capillitium,  morels, agarics, boletes

Genus Cyathus Haller ex Pers. (Agaricomycetes) from Eastern Himalaya
B. M. Sharma
Department of Plant Pathology,H.P.Agriculture University, Palampur-176061
Corresponding Author Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(Submitted on August 20, 2016; Accepted on September 30, 2016)

This paper deals with the morphology and taxonomy of sixteen species of Cyathus from Eastern Himalaya, including India and Royal Kingdom of Bhutan. Of these, Cyathus thindianus has been described as a new species. Three species viz.C.berkeleyanus. C.ellipsoideus and C.montagnei have been reported for the first time from Himalaya while C.gracilis is being circumscribed for the first time from India. Remaining species viz. C.striatus, C.novae-zealandiae. C.griseocarpus, C.limbatus, C.poeppigii, C.microsporus, C.intermedius, C.colensoi, C.hookeri, C.stercoreus and C.triplex have only been briefly annotated. A key is provided for the Eastern Himalayan species.
Keywords: Bird’s nest fungus, Agaricomycetes, peridioles, taxonomy

My dates with Perithecial Fungi
J. S. Dargan
Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala-147002
Corresponding authors Email : This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(Submitted in August 06, 2016 ; Accepted on September 05, 2016)

Perithecial fungi traditionally known as   Pyrenomycetes, a class under division Ascomycota has recently been treated under class Sordariomycetes of sub division Pezizomycotina under Ascomycota. Several fungi belonging to this group of fungi have been reported by the author and his associates from various regions of North -West India. In the recent years several monographic contributions on various families and genera have been made by the experts in the field. Based on these recent works, various taxa of perithecial fungi, reported from this region of India have been reassessed and assigned to their respective taxonomic groups.
Keywords : Ascomycetous fungi, perithecia, taxonomy, Indian contribution

Myxomycetes: The forgotten Fungi like living organisms from India
C. Manoharachary and D. Nagaraju*
Mycology and Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Osmania University, Hyderabad  500007, Telangana., India
*Department of Botany, Govt. Degree College, Eturnagaram-506165, Distt. Warangal, Telangana., India. 
Corresponding author email:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(Submitted on May 25, 2016;  Accepted on August 25, 2016)

Myxomycetes represent fungi like organisms which are commonly known as slime molds. Earlier these were included in fungi, but now are included in kingdom Protista. Around 2000 species are reported from all over the world and India has a record of around 200 species, indicating need for further exploration of different ecological niches and habitats. This contribution reviews general account of myxomycetes diversity spectrum, methodology, habitat relationship, ecology and economic importance. Further it adds some information on myxomycetes collected on different substrates in some forest localities of Telangana state which form new additions to this region.
Keywords: Diversity, ecology, economic importance, fossil, habitat, Myxomycetes.

Symbiotic Response of Ocimum sanctum to different Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi
E. Jyothi1&2 and D. J. Bagyaraj1*
1Centre for Natural Biological Resources and Community Development (CNBRCD), #41, RBI Colony, Anand Nagar, Bangalore  560024, Karnataka
2Centre for Research and Development, PRIST University, Thanjavur-613403, Tamil Nadu
*Corresponding author Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(Submitted on May 15, 2016; Accepted on August 15, 2016)

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are known to be supportive to crop plants through uptake of diffusion limited nutrients, biological control, hormone production, drought resistance, etc. Ocimum sanctum L. is one of the major medicinal plant of our country. Pot experiment was conducted to screen and select the efficient arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for inoculating O. sanctum. Screening was done with eleven different species of AM fungi (Acaulospora laevis, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus bagyarajii, Glomus etunicatum, Glomus fasciculatum, Glomus intraradices, Glomus leptotichum, Glomus macrocarpum, Glomus monosporum, Glomus mosseae and Scutellospora calospora). Plant parameters like height, stem girth, biovolume index, biomass of shoot and root and mycorrhizal parameters like root colonization, spore number in the root zone soil, etc. have been recorded according to the standard procedures. Based on the improved plant parameters like bio-volume index, plant biomass, oil yield and phosphorus uptake it is concluded that Glomus monosporum is the best AM fungus for inoculating O. sanctum.
Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Ocimum sanctum, Glomus monosporum, Plant growth response.


Thermomyces lanuginosus: A True Representative of Thermophilic, Fungal World!
Anil Prakash and Bhavdish N Johri*
Department of Microbiology, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462026, M.P
*Department of Biotechnology, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462026, M
Corresponding author email.:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(Submitted on June 26, 2016 ; Accepted on August 15, 2016)

Miehe was first to isolate Thermomyces lanuginosus with four other species of thermophillic fungi. Tsiklinskaya, in 1899 found Thermomyces lanuginosus (Humicola lanuginosa) a chance contaminant on potato inoculated with garden soil. This fungus is explicitly associated with organic substrates such as compost resources, paddy straw , wheat straw,  manures of birds and mammals droppings, dried and dead materials of plant like litter fall as leaves, twigs, stems and root, and municipal refuse where the process of decomposition by the mesophilic paves way for its colonization. Humicola lanuginosus (Thermomyces lanuginosus) grows from 30 to 52-55°C. The fungus possesses both intra- and exocellular thermozymes like xylanase, protease, lipase, amaylase, etc.  However, for cellulose degradation it seems to live as a commensal with cellulose-decomposing species, like Chaetomium thermophile. Phylogenetically Thermomyces lanuginosus is classified as a mitosporic fungus (imperfect fungus), that reproduces asexually by forming aleurioconidia. It is  also reported as a member of the order Eurotiales in a sister relationship with Talaromyces thermophilus. Thermomyces lanuginosus is a candidate organism for future of bioenergy based technologies by virtue of its colonization capacity, ability to deconstruct wood and wood based products, and release of cellulase-free xylanase.
Keywords: Compost, mycoflora, thermal adaptation, enzyme, biofuel alternative

Development of Fungicide Resistance in Plant Pathogens with Reference to Indian Scenario
T.S. Thind
Department of Plant Pathology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludiana-141004, India
Corresponding authors E.mail :
(Submitted on 05-03-2016 ; Accepted on 25-05-2016)

Fungicides are essential component of crop protection and have played significant role in managing several devastating crop diseases. However, their indiscriminate use has resulted into development of resistance in several pathogens. This has led to poor disease control in many instances. The problem is more common with site-specific fungicides and performance of many of the systemic fungicides developed in the past three decades has been adversely affected. Some of the fungicide groups such as benzimidazoles, phenylamides, dicarboximides and the recently introduced strobilurins carry high resistance risk while fungicides like sterol biosynthesis inhibitors possess moderate risk. In India, development of resistance to various site-specific fungicides is now well known in some plant pathogens under practical field situations. This calls for implementation of suitable resistance management strategies to get expected disease control levels and to prolong the active life of potential fungicides.
Keywords : Fungicides, resistance, plant pathogens, competitive fitness, pathogenic potential, site-specificity


Researches on Russulaceous Mushrooms-An Appraisal
N.S. Atri, Samidha Sharma*, Munruchi Kaur Saini and Kanad Das**
Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, Punjab, India.
*Department of Botany, Arya College, Ludhiana 141001, Punjab, India.
**Botanical Survey of India, Cryptogamic Unit, P.O. Botanic Garden, Howrah 711 103, India
Corresponding author email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(Submitted on August 10, 2016 ; Accepted on October 2, 2016)

Russulaceae is one among the large families of the basidiomycetous fungi. Some significant studies during the last decade on their systematics and molecular phylogeny resulted in splitting of well known milkcap genus Lactarius s.l. and inclusion of number of gastroid and resupinate members under its circumscription.  Presently, there are seven genera (including agaricoid, gasteroid and resupinate members) in this family viz. Russula Pers., Lactarius Pers., Lactifluus (Pers.) Roussel, Cystangium Singer & A.H. Smith, Multifurca Buyck & Hofst., Boidinia Stalper & Hjortstam and Pseudoxenasma K.H. Larss. & Hjortstam spread over  1248 +  recognised species the world over. Out of  a total of about  259 + species/taxa of Russulacous mushrooms,146 taxa of Russula, 83 taxa of Lactarius, 27 taxa of Lactifluus, 2 species of Boidinia and 1 species of Multifurca are documented from India. In this manuscript an appraisal of the work done on various aspects of the members of the family Russulaceae including their taxonomic, molecular, phylogenetic, scanning electron microscopic, ectomycorrhizal, nutritional and nutraceutical aspects has been attempted.
Keywords: Russulaceae, taxonomy, phylogeny, SEM, ECM, nutritional, nutraceutical, review


Mycokeratinophiles: Pathogens of Onychomycosis
Sandeep Kotwal and Geeta Sumbali
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu, 180006
Corresponding author Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(Submitted on July 25, 2016; Accepted on September 20, 2016)

Mycokeratinophiles are an ecologically important group of microorganisms that have the ability to cycle keratin, which is one of the most abundant and highly stable animal protein on the earth. These are vigorous and self- sufficient saprophytes as long as environmental conditions are favourable. However, they are opportunists and may become parasitic by accident. After becoming pathogenic, they are able to survive and multiply at host's body temperature, causing further infection by invading fresh keratinized tissues. Infection is transmitted from human to human or from animal to human by direct contact or by contact with infected hairs or epidermal cells. Infact, it is the only type of fungal infection known to be of contagious type. Such mycokeratinophiles, which cause diseases of skin, hair and nails in man and animals, are commonly called as dermatophytes and their infections are known as cutaneous mycoses or dermatomycoses. The dermatophytic fungi belong to one of the three genera- Microsporum, Trichophyton or Epidermophyton. In addition to the dermatophytes, some non-dermatophytic mycokeratinophiles are emerging as leading cause of onychomycosis, that is, fungal infection of toe nails and finger nails. It is the most common nail disorder present in 2-13 per cent of general population, increasing up to 48 percent by 70 years of age. Although onychomycosis is rarely life threatening, its high incidence, prevalence and associated morbidity, makes it an important public health problem.
KeyWords: Mycokeratinophiles, mycoses, onychomycosis, dermatophytes, non-dermatophytes.

The Genus Tomentella: Indian Scenario
Gurpaul S. Dhingra
Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala  147002
Corresponding author Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(Submitted on August 12, 2016 ; Accepted on September 30, 2016)

A consolidated tabulated account of 56 taxa of genus Tomentella Pers. ex Pat. from India has been given, which is based on the contributions made on the genus till date. Information about the names of taxa published by different workers, present names of taxa as per MycoBank and Species Fungorum and first report from India has been given in the table. Along with a key to the valid species of Tomentella has also been provided.
Keywords: Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes, Himalaya, Wood rotting fungi

Thermophilic Mould Sporotrichum thermophile: Biology and Potential Biotechnological Applications
Bijender Singh and T. Satyanarayana*
Laboratory of Bioprocess Technology, Department of Microbiology,  Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001, Haryana
*Department of Microbiology, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi-110021, India
*Corresponding author Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(Submitted on12-03-2016 ; Accepted on 02-05-2016)

Sporotrichum thermophile (Syn. Myceliophthora thermophila) is a ubiquitous thermophilic mould that exhibits strong plant organic matter decomposing ability in the temperature range between 40 and 50°C. It has a very broad and efficient enzymatic machinery which enable the mould to thrive in different environments utilizing an array of substrates. Both genome analysis and experimental data have confirmed that the mould is capable of hydrolyzing all major polysaccharides found in plant biomass. The genome analysis and characterization of the biomass-hydrolyzing enzymes confirm that the mould efficiently degrades plant organic matter at elevated temperatures. The hydrolytic enzymes secreted by the mould have several biotechnological applications. Despite low enzyme titers, the native enzymes of the mould are more efficient than their mesophilic counterparts. Attempts are being made to mine the genome through heterologous gene cloning, expression and characterization of the recombinant enzymes. The mould is also known to synthesize various bioactive molecules, which find potential applications.
Keywords: Thermophilic mould, Sporotrichum thermophile, thermostable enzymes, biomolecules, organic matter degradation

Aquatic Hyphomycetes in Detritus, Sediment and Water in the Western Ghat Streams
N.C. Karun, K.R. Sridhar* and S.D. Ghate
Department of Biosciences, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore 574 199, Karnataka, India
Corresponding author's email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(Submitted on 15-03-2016; Accepted on 10-05-2016)

Most of the investigations on aquatic hyphomycetes in Western Ghats are confined to study their assemblage and diversity in leaf litter, foam and water. The present investigation documented aquatic hyphomycetes in different samples (leaf litter, woody litter, sediment and water) from three perennial streams located at high altitude in the Western Ghats (765-845 m asl). Ten species were common to all samples (Alatospora acuminata, Anguillospora longissima, Cylindrocarpon sp., Flagellospora curvula, F. penicillioides, Isthmotricladia gombakiensis, Lunulospora curvula, L. cymbiformis, Triscelophorus acuminatu and T. monosporus). Five species of them were top conidia producers (Anguillospora longissima, Flagellospora curvula, F. penicillioides, Lunulospora curvula and L. cymbiformis). Based on per cent conidial contribution, six species could be considered as core-group species (10%) (A. longissima, F. curvula, F. penicillioides, L. curvula and L. cymbiformis and L. cymbiformis-like sp.). A total of 8, 6, 5 and 2 species each were confined to water, woody litter, leaf litter and sediments, respectively. Those species which selectively occur in specific niche in streams deserve further study. This study recommends the evaluation of  different substrates in the streams to understand assemblage and diversity of aquatic hyphomycetes more precisely.
Keywords : Aquatic hyphomycetes, leaf litter, sediments, Western Ghats, species richness, diversity


Diversity of the genus Suillus Gray from coniferous forests of the northwestern Himalayas, India: Taxonomy, ecology and some new records
Balwant Verma and M. Sudhakara Reddy*
Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University, Patiala-147004, Punjab, India
*Corresponding author Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(Submitted on 15-03-2016; Accepted on 25-05-2016)

The coniferous forests of the northwestern Himalayan region of India are rich in mycodiversity and were explored for Suillus diversity during the present study. We documented seven Suillus species viz. S. sibiricus, S. granulatus, S. flavidus, S. placidus S. triacicularis, S. himalayensis and S. indicus from this region. All these species were examined morphologically and identified molecularly by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer region of basidiocarps. Out of seven species identified, two taxa namely, S. flavidus and S. placidus are new records from India, whereas S. sibiricus and S. granulatus are re-reported. Suillus flavidus, S. placidus, S. sibiricus and S. granulatus are described taxonomically as well as molecularly for the first time from India. Ecological data regarding occurrence, abundance, distribution and association of these Suillus species is also discussed and suggested that S. sibiricus is the most frequently encountered and widely distributed species in the northwestern Himalayan region of India. In addition, a key to the northwestern Himalayan species of the genus Suillus is also provided.
Keywords: Suillus, distribution, association, ITS, phylogeny, taxonomy


Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Fungi and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) as Bio-fertilizers on Growth Enhancement of Economically Important Native Tree Species, Neolamarckia cadamba Seedlings
S.S. Sreedhar and V. Mohan*
Division of Forest Protection, Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore - 641 002, Tamil Nadu
*Corresponding author email.: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(Submitted in June 26, 2016; Accepted on August 28, 2016)

The demand for large scale development of plantations of economically important indigenous as well as fast growing exotic tree species through ToF (Trees Outside Forests) programme has been progressively increasing in the recent past in Tamil Nadu and other parts of the country. Successful establishment of plantations is based on the survivability of the planted healthy and quality saplings in the field.  Hence, an efficient production of quality seedlings of economically important tree species is of paramount importance.  In this study, an attempt was made to determine the effect of commercially available beneficial microbes as bio-inoculants on growth enhancement of economically important fast growing native tree species, Neolamarckia cadamba in nursery. It was observed that dual application of bio-inoculants was found better than single inoculation indicating the synergistic effect. Further, dual combination involving both nitrogen fixers and phosphorus solubilizer/ mobilizer were found highly effective.
Keywords: AM fungi,  Azospirillum,  Azotobacter,  Neolamarckia cadamba, phosphobacterium


Revision of the Genus Coltricia Gray, from India
Navpreet Kaur, Avneet Pal Singh* and Gurpaul Singh Dhingra
Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala-147002, Punjab, India.
*Corresponding author's email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(Submitted on July 29, 2016; Accepted on September 15, 2016)

This paper provides information about eleven species of genus Coltricia Gray (Hymenochaetaceae, Hymenochaetales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) from India. Of these, three species [C. cinnamomea (Jacq.) Murrill, C. focicola (Berk. and Curtis) Murrill and C. perennis (L.) Murrill], based on the collections made from Himachal Pradesh, are described and illustrated. It is pertinent to mention here that C. focicola is a new record for India.
Key words: Coltricia, Basidiomycota, basidiocarps, poroid hymenophore.

The genus Monodictys from Himachal Pradesh
I. B. Prasher and Rajnish Kumar Verma*
Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Panjab University Chandigarh, 160014
*Corresponding Author Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(Submitted on July 26, 2016 ; Accepted on September 15,2016)

Seven species of Monodictys S. Hughes (hyphomycete) are described. Monodictys cerebriformis (Wallr.) S. Hughes, M. Melanopa (Ach.) M.B. Ellis and M. Paradoxa (Corda) S. Hughes  are being reported for the first time from India, whereas M. desquamata K. Rodr., Figueras & Guarro and M. nitens  (Schewein) S. Hughes constitute a new record for N. W. Himalayas/ Himachal Pradesh.
Keywords Anamorphic fungi, Diversity, Himalayas


First report of a fertile specimen of Xanthoparmelia pseudocongensis Hale from India
Krishna Chandra1, Shashi Upadhyay1&2, Kapil Bisht1&2 and Yogesh Joshi1*
1Department of Botany, S.S.J. Campus, Kumaun University, Almora  263601, Uttarakhand, India
2Biodiversity Conservation and Management Theme, G.B. Pant National institute of Hiamlayan Environment and Sustainable Development, Kosi- Katarmal, Almora  263643, Uttarakhand, India
*Corresponding author Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(Submitted in June 16, 2016  ; Accepted on September 22, 2016)

The previous documented records on specimens of Xanthoparmelia pseudocongensis Hale were all sterile throughout the country. A fertile specimen of this lichen is being reported for the first time from India. It is characterized by its distinct apothecia with spores measuring (7.5-) 10-12.5 x 5-7.5 µm.
Keywords:  Xanthoparmelia, lichen, fertile, Uttarakhand


Biopesticides an eco-friendly pest management approach in agriculture : status and prospects
K. R. Aneja1, S. A. Khan2 and Ashish Aneja3
1Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, 136119  (Haryana) India
2Department of Biotechnology and Microbiology, Bhagwati College of Management and Technology, Siwaya, Meerut ( U.P.) India
3University Health Centre, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, 136119, India 
Corresponding authors Email. : This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(Submitted on August 2, 2016; Accepted on October 01, 2016)

Agriculture is adversely affected by numerous pests like insects, weeds, plant pathogens and nematodes leading to reduced yield and poor quality of the produce. Biopesticides offer powerful tools to create a new generation of sustainable agriculture products and most likely alternatives some of the most problematic, pollution creating and carcinogenic chemical pesticides currently in use. These are the formulations based on the live organisms (e.g. fungi, bacteria, viruses) and their metabolites used to manage pests in agriculture. The present emphasis on the development and use of the biopesticides is based on the disadvantages associated with chemical pesticides. Globally, their use is increasing steadily at the rate of 10% per annum. Of the three classes of biopesticides, microbial pesticides are some of the earliest developed and widely used biopesticides. About 90% of the biopesticides are derived from just one entomopathogenic, endospore producing, Gram positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, commonly called Bt. Though, India has a vast potential for biopesticides, however, these represent only 2.8% of the over all pesticide market. Biopesicides, although shows a great promise, have not come up to the desired level so as to displace the dominance of chemical pesticides. As environmental safety is a global concern, we need to create awareness among the farmers, government agencies, policy makers, manufacturers and the common man to switch-over to biopesticides for pest management requirements.
Keywords: Pests, IPM, biochemical pesticides, microbial pesticides, neem, Bacillus thuringiensis, Colletotrichum, Beauveria, Peniophora


First report of teleomorphic stage of Normandina pulchella from India
Y. Joshi1, V. B. Sreekumar2 and S. Sequeira3
1Department of Botany, S.S.J Campus, Kumaun University, Almora-263601,Uttrakhand, India
2Forest Ecology and Biodiversity Conservation Division, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi - 680653, Kerala
3Department of Botany, Government College Chittur, Palakkad - 678 104, Kerala
1Corresponding author Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(Submitted on August 12, 2016; Accepted on October 06, 2016)

The paper reports the fertile stage of  Normandina pulchella (Borr.) Nyl. from the state of Kerala. Previously it was known in a sterile condition from Tamil Nadu state. A taxonomic note regarding Normandina pulchella and its teleomorph [Lauderlindsaya borreri (Tul.) J.C. David & D. Hawksw.] is provided along with detailed description of the species. 
Keywords: Anamorph, Kerala, lichen, taxonomy, teleomorph, Western Ghats


New records of Phaeocollybia from North Western Himalayas, India
Shilpa Sood, Ramesh C. Upadhyay, Kirti K. Koul* and Ved P. Sharma
ICAR-Directorate of Mushroom Research Chambaghat, Solan (HP) India-173213
*SOS in Botany, Jiwaji University Gwalior (MP) India- 474011
Corresponding author email:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(Submitted on August 25, 2016; Accepted on October 20, 2016)

Two mushroom species, namely Phaeocollybia attenuata subsp. mexicana Singer and Phaeocollybia similis (Bres.) Singer, collected from the hills of North West Himalayas are illustrated and described for the first time from India.
Keywords: Basidiomycota, macrofungi, taxonomy, ectomycorrhizae, Phaeocollybia.



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