From the Editor's Desk
The Mycological Society of India is pleased to announce the release of 49 volume of Kavaka being Transactions of the Mycological Society of India. The issue presents fourteen research articles pertaining to fungal diversity, bio prospecting, pathology, nanotechnology, cultivation, etc.As discussed during the 48 annualmeeting of Mycological Society of India held at the Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu (Jammu and Kashmir) the society is planning to start an online portal for hosting the contributionsmade by the IndianMycologists. I request the mycologists from different parts of the country to kindly contribute a write up on the contributions of Indian mycologists alongwith their photograph. th th My sincere thanks are due to all the authors of the articles and the reviewers for their significant contributions withoutwhich the timely release of this issue of the Journalwould not have been possible.
December 31, 2017
KAVAKA Department of Botany
Shiwali Rana1, Paras Nath Singh1, Subhash B Gaikwad1 and Sanjay K Singh1,2,*
1 National Fungal Culture Collection of India, Biodiversity and Palaeobiology Group, MACS' Agharkar Research Institute, GG Agarkar Road, Pune 411004, India.
2 Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007, India.
(Submitted in October, 2017; Accepted on November 11, 2017)
This paper deals with identification, characterization and documentation of an interesting isolate exhibiting unique morphological characters on different artificial nutrient media isolated as phylloplane fungus. This isolate was identified based on morphological, cultural, molecular sequence data. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using ITS region and 28S rDNA gene regions. Results revealed that, the present isolate belongs to the genus Arthrinium and is closely related to Arthrinium rasikravindrae Singh et al. (2012) reported from soil collected from the Arctic Archipelago Svalbard, Norway. To our knowledge, this is the first report of documentation of Arthrinium rasikravindrae isolated as saprophyte from India. As a part of ex situ conservation, this taxon is preserved for long term in National Fungal Culture Collection of India (NFCCI) following cryopreservation method.
Keywords: Arthrinium, biodiversity, conservation, systematics, India, Xylariales
Kanad Das1*, Aniket Ghosh2, S. Santhosh3 and Alfredo Vizzini4
1 Cryptogamic Unit, Botanical Survey of India, P.O. Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103, India
2 Department of Botany & Microbiology, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar, Garhwal 246174, Uttarakhand, India
3 Department of Botany, Madras Christian College, Chennai 600059, India
4 Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Torino, Viale P.A. Mattioli 25, I-10125 Torino, Italy
(Submitted in June, 2017; Accepted on December 15, 2017)
During a 2016 foray to South District of Sikkim, Paxillus orientalis, a species belonging to Paxillus subg. Alnopaxillus, was collected for the first time in India. A detailed morphological description, ITS-based phylogenetic estimation, illustrations and comparisons with allied species are presented.
Keywords: Sikkim, Basidiomycota, Boletales, phylogeny, taxonomy
Ramandeep Kaur, Harpreet Kaur, Avneet Pal Singh*, Gurpreet Kaur** and Gurpaul Singh Dhingra
Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, Punjab, India
**Department of Agriculture, Khalsa College, Amritsar 143002, Punjab, India
(Submitted in September, 2017; Accepted on November 30, 2017)
This paper provides an account of 8 species [Diplomitoporus allantosporus Ryvarden & Iturr., D. flavescens (Bres.) Domanski, D. overholtsii (Pilát) Gilb. & Ryvarden, Earliella scabrosa (Pers.) Gilb. & Ryvarden, Hexagonia hirta (P. Beauv.) Fr., Pycnoporus cinnabarinus (Jacq.) P. Karst., Trichaptum abietinum (Pers. ex J.F. Gmel.) Ryvarden and Trametes versicolor (L.) Lloyd] of family Polyporaceae (order-Polyporales, class-Agaricomycetes, subphylum-Agaricomycotina and phylum-Basidiomycota). Of these, Diplomitoporus allantosporus, D. flavescens, D. overholtsii, Hexagonia hirta and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus are being described for the first time from the state of Himachal Pradesh and all the three species of genus Diplomitoporus are also first reports from India.
Keywords: Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes, Sirmaur, Himalaya
Susmita Paul1, R.K. Bhagobaty2, M.C. Nihalani2 and S.R. Joshi1*
1 Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong-793022
2 Petroleum Biotechnology Centre, R& D Department, Oil India Limited, Duliajan-786602, Assam, India
(Submitted in October, 2017; Accepted on December 26, 2017)
Seven biodiesel plants, namely Jatropha curcas, Ricinus communis, Pongamia pinnata, Sapindus mukorossi, Mesua ferrea, Terminalia bellerica and Cascabela thevetia were collected from oil fields of Assam for isolation of endophytic fungi. Besides morphological characterization, molecular identification of the endophytic isolates was done by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS). The sequences were submitted to NCBI GenBank while the phylogenetic tree was submitted to TreeBase for obtaining accession numbers. Diversity assessment of the total 27 fungal isolates obtained from 155 segments of different plants was carried out to assess the distribution patterns. Ten numbers of fungal isolates obtained from Cascabela thevetia were dominant when compared to other plants. There were high colonization rate in leaf part of plants when compared to other parts which was also indicated by one way ANOVA with a significant colonization of fungal isolates in leaf part of the plants. Density of Colletotrichum sp. was dominant with 26% relative frequency. Total lipid extraction of the fungal isolates was performed and application of one way ANOVA indicated a significant percentage of total lipid found in isolates SPSRJ27 and SPSRJL36 isolated from leaf part and isolate SPSRJL35 isolated from stem part of the plants. Further studies on growth optimization of lipid producing isolates may open up avenues for their use as oleaginous fungi.
Key words: Oleaginous, endophytic fungi, biodiesel plants, diversity
M. Pavithra, K.R. Sridhar* and A.A. Greeshma
Department of Biosciences, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore 574 199, Karnataka, India
(Submitted in August, 2017; Accepted on December 1, 2017)
This study provides functional attributes of uncooked and cooked edible tender fruit bodies of an ectomycorrhizal gasteroid mushroom Astraeus hygrometricus sampled from the Western Ghats of India. The pH-dependent protein solubility was highest at pH 10 in uncooked (p<0.01) and cooked samples with least solubility at pH 8 and pH 4, respectively. The least gelation concentration was 18% and 20% in uncooked and cooked samples, respectively. The water-absorption capacity was higher in cooked samples (p<0.01), whereas it was opposite for the oil-absorption capacity (p>0.05). Emulsion activity was higher in uncooked samples, while emulsion stability was higher in cooked samples (p>0.05). The cooked samples showed high foam capacity (p<0.01) as well as foam stability (p<0.001). The principal component analysis (PCA) depicted that the proximal components like total lipids and crude fibre contents have major role in controlling the functional properties. The functional properties of uncooked as well as cooked tender fruit bodies of A. hygrometricus have selective advantages and serve as valuable raw material in production of functional foods and pharmaceutical products with desired qualities.
Keywords: Non-conventional food, proximal features, functional foods, ectomycorrhizae, Western Ghats
J. Pratibha1,2 and Ashish Prabhugaonkar2*
1 Department of Botany, Goa University, Goa 403206, India.
2* Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Regional Centre, Shillong 793003, India
(Submitted in August, 2017; Accepted on December 1, 2017)
This paper describes isolation of two rare litter degrading anamorphic fungi from forests of Western Ghats of Goa, India. Argopericonia indirae is new record of genus to mainland of India and first report of molecular phylogeny of genus Argopericonia which is placed in family Chaetothyriaceae. Pseudoxylomyces elegans is a rare record of genus and species of aquatic fungus from India. Molecular phylogenetic placement of genus Pseudoxylomyces in Pleosporales supports its establishment to accommodate Xylomyces elegans Goh.
Keywords: Phylogeny of asexual fungi, aquatic fungi, fungal diversity.
Rosy Agnes de Souza and Nandkumar Mukund Kamat*
Mycological Laboratory, Department of Botany, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Goa-403 206, India
(Submitted in October, 2017; Accepted on December 25, 2017)
This is the first report of Termitomyces bulborhizus T.Z. Wei, holomorph from Taleigao, Tiswadi and Latambarcem, Bicholim, Goa, India, along with its habit, habitat, sporodochial stage (anamorph), sporophores (teleomorph) and characters in pure cultures. T. bulborhizus is characterized by pale brown to darker, rugose pileus, having swollen stipe with bulbous base showing melanised, striate, rivulose surface. During the survey as many as 13 different developmental stages of the mushroom from primodia to mature sporophores were documented. Spherocysts with lipid globules were prominently detected in subhymenium. Sporodochial culture showed thin walled, simple septate hyphae. Basidiome context culture from the teleomorph showed typical conidia, globose sphaerocysts, aggregated hyphae, and hyphal knots with associated mycelia which take up intense staining with Ammonical Congo Red in addition to the presence of numerous Calcium oxalate mycoliths.
Keywords: Holomorph, anamorph, teleomorph, mutualistic system, Termitomyces, developmental stages
Deepika Mahobiya* and Ashwini Kumar Gupta
SoS in Life Science, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, 492010, Chhattisgarh, India
(Submitted in August, 2017; Accepted on December 10, 2017)
In the present investigation, 46 endophytic fungi were isolated from surface sterilized plant parts (root, stem, leaf and petiole) of six medicinal herbs viz., Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f., Abrus precatorius L., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. & Plumbago zeylanica L. and 34 endophytic fungi were isolated from three medicinal shrubs viz., Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet, Adhatoda vasica Nees and Ocimum sanctum L. A total of 12 genera of fungi including Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Aureobasidium, Bipolaris, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Neocosmospora and seven sterile forms were identified. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was dominant in Asparagus racemosus, Catharanthus roseus and Plumbago zeylanica. Maximum similarity of endophytic assemblages was observed between P. zeylanica and Asparagus racemosus. Notably, the fungi identified as Fusarium proliferatum KY853412 and Neocosmospora falciformis KY853414 based on ITS-rDNA and LSU (D1D2) rDNA sequence analysis, were found to be host specific. Maximum species richness and diversity of endophytic fungi was recorded in Asparagus racemosus. Highest species evenness was recorded in Hemidesmus indicus and it was minimum in Catharanthus roseus.
Key words: Fungal endophytes, medicinal plants, endophyte diversity
Rinu Khan* and A.K. Gupta
Microbiology Research Laboratory, School of Studies in Life Science, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur- 492010, Chhattisgarh, India
(Submitted in June, 2017; Accepted on December 2, 2017)
Microorganisms are ubiquitous in distribution. They are present in diverse environments including extremophilic regions and adapt physiologically to these environment. In the present study, isolation and screening of acidophilic fungi was carried out from eight mines of Chhattisgarh region viz., Laxman coalfield mine, Kusmunda mine, Dalli mine, Rajhara mine, BIOP mine, Hirri mine, Rawan mine, Nandini mine and one ore-dumping site of Bhilai Steel Plant. A total of 64 fungal isolates belonging to nine genera i.e., Aspergillus, Alternaria, Penicillium, Sterila, Mucor, Trichoderma, Fusarium, Phoma and Paecilomyces were isolated, identified and evaluated for their acid production ability. Of the 29 positive acidophilic fungi assayed quantitatively, Aspergillus niger gr. NFCCI-3303 and Penicillium sp 2 NFCCI-3305 were found to be significantly higher producer of organic acids and can be good source for biomining.
Keywords: Acidophilic fungi, Chhattisgarh, mines, organic acids
Sayeed Abdul Hamid Patel*, Vinod Kumar Vashisht and Ajmer Singh Dhatt
Department of Vegetable Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, 141004, India
(Submitted in August, 2017; Accepted on December 15, 2017)
Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (Fom) cause severe losses up to 100% in melon worldwide. Fusarium is epidemic due to continuous cultivation of susceptible varieties. Different edaphic factors influence wilt development in melon. Among preventive measure, resistant varieties are the most reliable control measure in hand. Four Fom physiological races were identified: 0, 1, 2 and 1, 2. In majority cases, resistance was governed by Fom-1 (race 0 and 2) and Fom-2 (race 0 and 1). Fom-2 encodes a protein which is characterized by the presence of NBS-LRR (Nucleotide Binding Site-Leucine Rich Repeat) domains. Fom-3 and fom-4 resistant gene have been identified which can built resistance along with Fom-1. While most of the present cultivars are susceptible to races 1, 2. Accessions of sub sp. agrestis have high level of resistance to races 1, 2 while, certain measurable resistance have also been found within sub sp. melo viz., few Far-East melon. Indian melon germplasm have great potential to combate against existing and newly evolving Fom races. Fluorescent study may open new window for identifying resistant cultivars. Biotechnological tools for identifying resistance genes can serve for selection of genotypes. QTL and omic's approach were reported for developing multiple resistant cultivar for different races. An integrated approach may prevent disease until durable and multigenic resistant variety/hybrid will not develop.
Keywords: Melon, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, Fom-1, Fom-2, Snapmelon
D. Nagaraju and C. Manoharachary*
Department of Botany, Govt. Degree College, Eturnagaram-506165, Distt. Warangal, Telangana., India.
*Mycology and Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007, Telangana., India.
(Submitted in September, 2017; Accepted on December 2, 2017)
Fungal species associated with Non-Rhizosphere soil, Rhizosphere soil and Rhizoplane of Vitex negundo Linn. located in Bhadrachalam forest area of Telangana state have been studied employing standard methods and many agar media. Altogether 191 fungal species have been found associated with Non-Rhizosphere soil, Rhizosphere soil and Rhizoplane regions of Vitex negundo Rhizosphere soil has supported more fungal species. Aspergillus followed by Penicillium, Fusarium and Curvularia dominated all the three ecological niches. Around 22 fungal species are reported new additions to the fungi of Telangana state. Only qualitative data of fungi associated with Vitex negundo is presented.
Keywords: Fungi, dilution plate, soil plate, rhizosphere, rhizoplane, soil, Vitex negundo.
Kavish Rajput1, Shruti Agrawal2, Jyoti Sharma1, and Pavan Kr Agrawal1*
1 Department of Biotechnology, Govind Ballabh Pant Engineering College, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India-246194
2 Department of Microbiology, Sai Institute of Paramedical and Allied Sciences, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India-248001
(Submitted in September, 2017; Accepted on December 25, 2017)
The aim of this study was to synthesize safe, novel and cost-effective silver nanoparticles (SNPs) without using any synthetic reducing and capping agents. Endophytic fungal extract of Pestalotiopsis versicolor (Speg.) Steyaert was used for the synthesis of SNPs. The synthesized SNPs were tested for their antibacterial and azo dye degradation efficacy. The synthesized SNPs showed signature surface plasmon resonance at 425 nm. The size and morphology of SNPs were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Crystallite nature of the SNPs was confirmed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The SNPs exhibited strong antibacterial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and also showed good azo dye-degrading potential against Congo red, Rhodamine B and Orange G.
Keywords: Green synthesis, silver nanoparticles (SNPs), TEM; antibacterial, dye decolourization
Amita* and N.S. Atri
Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala (Punjab), India.
(Submitted in November, 2017; Accepted on December 18, 2017)
Present investigation pertains to study the impact of different culture media, temperature range, pH range, incubation period and effect of light and darkness on the vegetative growth of Pleurotus cystidiosus O.K.Mill. Out of the media selected for evaluation, best mycelial growth (6.3cm) was recorded in Malt Extract Agar (solid medium) and Yeast Glucose Medium (liquid medium), which is 7.9 mg/ml. Out of the six different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40˚C), best mycelial growth was obtained at 30 ± 1˚C in both solid (6.3cm) as well as liquid medium (8.2 mg/ml). Acidic pH (6.5) supported the best mycelial growth in solid (6.3 cm) as well as liquid medium (12.9 mg/ml), when the mycelium was grown in media with pH ranging from 3.0-10.0. For incubation period, the experiment was conducted for sixteen days in Yeast Glucose Medium and maximum mycelial growth (6.93 mg/ml) was recorded on 13th day of incubation. Under light condition mycelial growth was quite less in both solid (5.06 cm) as well as liquid media (6.46 mg/ml) in comparison to dark condition under which growth was 6.3 cm in solid medium and 7.63 mg/ml in the liquid medium, which is comparatively on the higher side.
Keywords: Coremia, culture media, incubation period, oyster mushroom, pH, temperature.
Poonam1, Avneet Pal Singh2* and Gurpaul Singh Dhingra2
1 Government Post Graduate College, Chamba 176314
2 Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002
(Submitted in November, 2017; Accepted on December 20, 2017)
Nine species of corticioid fungi i.e. Cristinia helvetica (Pers.) Parmasto, Gloeocystidiellum leucoxanthum (Bres.) Boidin, G. porosum (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Donk, Hypochnicium lundellii (Bourdot) J. Erikss., Leucogyrophana mollusca (Fr.) Pouzar, L. pseudomollusca (Parmasto) Parmasto, Peniophora pseudoversicolor Boidin, Tomentella subclavigera Litsch. and T. viridula Bourdot & Galzin, new to the district Chamba (Himachal Pradesh) are described and illustrated. Of these, Leucogyrophana pseudomollusca and Peniophora pseudoversicolor are new records for India and Gloeocystidiellum leucoxanthum, G. porosum and Tomentella viridula are first reports from the state of Himachal Pradesh.
Keywords: Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes, North Western Himalaya.