From the Editor's Desk
Dear MSI Colleagues as you are already aware about the delisting of Kavaka being Transactions of Mycological Society of India by University Grants Commission from the list of approved Journals without asking for any information from any of the present or past office bearers. This step seems to have been taken without much taking into account the credentials of the Journal, which have been built over the years through the successive efforts of earlier stalwarts of Indian Mycology .The Committee constituted by UGC has reasoned it because of the low score. I have been informed through written explanation by Professor Rajesh Jain, Secretary UGC that the scoring was done on the basis whether the journal has peer review policy, author's guidelines, well defined ethical policy, indexing, frequency and details about the commencement of publication. As you already know all these details are available on the official website of Mycological Society of India (http://www.fungiindia.co.in) as well as on the website of the Journal (http://www.kavaka.fungiindia.co.in). Also the Journal is being published regularly since 1973 without any gap and the digitized version of all the back volumes is available for free access on the website of the Journal. I, in my capacity as Editor-in-Chief have written a rebuttal intimating all the requisite information about the Journal for evaluation. To strengthen my argument I have also intimated the Kavaka rating by NAAS at 5.33, which stands testimony to the credentials of the Journal. My request to the honorable members of MSI and other mycologists is that they should not get disheartened by the unfortunate step the UGC Journals Team has taken ignoring the credentials of this prestigious Indian Journal which is being viewed by over 5000 visitors every month. Ever since we started the dynamic website of the Journal in 2014, over 259000 visitors has visited the website for various academic purposes including downloading, consultation and publication of the articles. This voluminous number of visitors visiting the MSI website from all over the World is a proof enough for the quality of material being published in the Journal. Kindly keep on contributing your good research and review articles to the Journal. With the type of information regarding the Journal I have supplied to University Grants Commission, I have every hope that shortly it will be there in the approved list of Journals.
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all the contributors and the reviewers of the research articles published in this issue of Kavaka.
June 30, 2018
N. S. Atri
Professor, Department of Botany
Punjabi University, Patiala
PIN-147 002, PUNJAB, INDIA
Translating Endophytic Fungal Research Towards Pharmaceutical Applications
TERI-Deakin Nano Biotechnology Centre, The Energy and Resources Institute, Darbari Seth Block, IHC Complex, Lodhi
Road,NewDelhi 110 003, India
Fungi living without any symptoms within the tissue of upper subgroups of are known as endophytic fungi. Since the discovery of Taxol, these fungi have received immense attention both from mycologists and microbiologists that resulted in the discovery of cryptocandin, camptothecin, vincristine and several other clinically useful small molecules. The Indian subcontinent, owing to its rich biodiversity, offers a great opportunity to discover unexplored fungi for pharmaceutical applications. For several years at Basic ResearchCentre ofHoechstMarionRoussel Limited and Research Centre of Piramal Enterprises, Mumbai, the prime interest was to use these fungi for drug discovery purposes using various enzymes, cell and target based screening to discover anticancer,anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial compounds.Various approaches including epigenetic tools, co-culture strategy,
biotransformation and gene-editing tools, which are not routinely used in drugdiscoveryprograms, are alsobriefly discussed.
Rahul Sharma and Yogesh Shouche
National Centre for Microbial Resource (NCMR), National Centre for Cell Science, NCCS Complex, S.P. Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune, Maharashtra 411 007, India
(Submitted on March 15, 2018; Accepted onApril 28, 2018)
As part of keratinophilic fungal diversity project in Maharashtra state of India, an unusual dermatophyte was isolated by hair baiting technique from soil collected from the vicinity of a village barbershop in Buldana district of Maharashtra. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 28S rRNA region of new isolate suggested that it belong to a new species of the recently circumscribed genus Nannizzia, forming unusual cylindrical to clavate macroconidia. Sequence similarity search of its ITS region in the CBS dermatophyte database showed a maximum similarity of 91% with Microsporum sp. (A. corniculatum)-CBS 365.81 and 90.4% with M. persicolor (CBS 871.70). Phylogenetically the new species is close to N. praecox and N. persicolor , forming a monophyletic clade with them in the ITS tree. The present communication describes this new species (N. graeserae sp. nov.) based on morphology and sequence divergence in the ITS region. The ITS sequence alignment of dermatophyte species thatproduce rough walled macroconidia showed certain base positions which have genus-specific nucleotide changes.
Keywords: Arthrodermataceae, dermatophyte, ITS, macroconidia,Microsporum,Nannizzia graeserae, phylogeny.
Dyutiparna Chakraborty 1 , Manoj E. Hembrom 2,Arvind Parihar1,Md. Iqbal Hosen 3 and Kanad Das1*
1Botanical Survey of India, Cryptogamic Unit, P.O. Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103, India
2Central National Herbarium, Botanical Survey of India, P.O. Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103, India.
3State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070, China.
(Submitted on February 18, 2018;Acc epted onApril 22, 2018)
Phylloporus maculatus and P. yunnanensis are reported as new records from Himalayan region of India. Detailed macro- and microscopicdescriptions together with phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (nrLSU) are presented.
Keywords: Basidiomycota, Himalaya, macrofungi, phylogeny, Sikkim, Uttarakhand
Yogesh Joshi1*, Manish Tripathi 1, Kapil Bisht1 , Shashi Upadhyay 1 , Vishal Kumar 1,Neha Pal 1, Ankita Gaira 1, Sugandha Pant1 , Kamal S. Rawat1 , Sunita Bisht, Rajesh Bajpai2 and Josef P. Halda3
1Lichenology Laboratory, Department of Botany, S.S.J. Campus, Kumaun University, Almora - 263601, Uttarakhand, India
2Lichenology laboratory, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow - 226001, Uttar Pradesh
(Submitted on December 21, 2017; Accepted on May 15, 2018)
Fifty two rarely collected or otherwise interesting species of lichenicolous fungi are presented, of which three species are described as new to science: Didymocyrtis rhizoplacae (on Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca from Uttarakhand), Plectocarpon parmeliarum (on Parmelia meiophora from Uttarakhand) and Pyrenidium hypotrachynae (on Hypotrachyna coorgiana from Kerala), while 49 species are additions to the known lichenicolous mycobiota of India.
Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, lichenicolous lichens, new records, taxonomy.
PratimaVishwakarma1 *, Pooja Singh 1 , Veena B Kushwaha2 and Nijendra Nath Tripathi1
1Bacteriology and Natural Pesticide Laboratory, Department of Botany, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, U.P., India
(Submitted on March 15, 2018; Accepted on May 27, 2018)
Edible fungi are used as antidiabetics since ancient times. In the present studies aqueous extract of some edible macrofungi viz., Calocybe indica Purkay. & A. Chandra , Cantharellus subalbidus Smith & Morse , Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer , Pleurotus florida (Mont.) Singer, P.ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm., Termitomyces heimii K. Natarajan and Tuber aestivum Vitt. were analyzed for their in vitro antidiabetic activity.Tested macrofungi exerted a significant inhibitory effect on glucose movement out of dialysis membrane. This effect was found to be concentration and time dependent. Higher the concentration of aqueous extract higher its activity was. Most effective concentration in present studies was found to be 50g/L. Aqueous extract of P. ostreatus was able to inhibit glucose movement out of dialysis bags at all concentrations tested when compared with other macrofungal extracts. The result clearly suggests that these macrofungi can be used as an alternative therapy for diabetes treatment.
Keywords: Diabetes, Dialysis membrane, Diffusion, Glucose,in vitrostudies, Macrofungi
Chongtham Ranjib Singh, Mutum Shyamkesho Singh and N. Irabanta Singh*
Aerobiology Laboratory,Centre of Advanced Study in Life Sciences, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal-795003, India
(Submitted onApril 26, 2018;Accepted on June 22, 2018)
Sampling was conducted from August, 2013 to November, 2015 in a large paddy field to investigate variability of airborne fungal spores over the area using Tilakrotorod air sampler. The result showed that the average monthly spore count was 185 spores/m 3 , with a maximum level in October and November, and the minimum level in January. In all 28 fungal spore types were identified. Agrand total of 1,33,200 spores /m 3 of air (October, 2013 to September, 2014) and 121,358 spores/m3 of air (October, 2014 to October, 2015) were trapped. Within a day, the maximum level occurred at 16:00 hours, followed by 09:00 hrs and then 13:00 hrs. The predominant genera identified were Helminthosporium,Nigrospora, Trematosphaeria, Drechslera, Alternaria, Pleospora, Cladosporium , Pyricularia , Aspergillus, Penicillium , Tetraploa and Torula comprising 78.4% of the total spore count. During the month of threshing, spore count was maximum in all the study periods.
Keywords: Airborne fungal spores, mean monthly spore count, predominant, paddy field.
Astha1*, P. S. Sekhon1 and M. K. Sangha2
Department of Plant Pathology 1, Department of Biochemistry 2 PAU, Ludhiana-141004
(Submitted onApril 24, 2018;Accepted on May 29, 2018)
Pseudoperonospora cubensis, an Oomycetous fungus causing downy mildew in muskmelon is most important foliar pathogen, causingsignificant yield losses. The present study was conducted to reduce fungicide load and work out alternate method for control of this disease. Different SAR compounds were tested and exogenous foliar sprays of different conc. of Salicylic acid, Jasmonic acid and Bion (Benzothiadiazole-BTH) @ 50µM, 250µM, 500µM, 1000µM and of β amino butyric acid of 20 mM, 30mM, 50 mM, 100mM were given for inducing resistance in muskmelon against downy mildew. Concentration of Salicylic acid, Jasmonic acid and Bion @ 500 µM, and β amino butyric acid @ 50 mM gave good control of disease. Protein content of treated muskmelon plant varied from 9.6 to 12.7 mg/g fresh weight compared to 3.9 mg/g fresh weight in control. Induction of proteins and defense enzymes was systemic in nature in response to all the four elicitors. The inducers also stimulated the activities of pathogenesis related proteins (Pr- proteins) i.e. β-1,3 glucanase, Peroxidase (POD), and defense related proteins i.e. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) from 26 to 99 % indicating induced resistance in treated muskmelon plants as compared to control. Electrophoretic protein profiling of treated muskmelon plants also confirmed the induction of pathogenesis-related proteins ranging from 15- 75 kDa along with some other proteins. Total chlorophyll and carotenoids also showed spike of 2% to 91 % in response to elicitors. Salicylic acid gave best results with 93.8 % disease control followed by Jasmonic acid with 87.2%; whereas Bion and β amino butyric acid were almost at par with each other and gave 76 % disease control as compared to control plants. Thus integration of disease tolerance and salicylic acid spray resulted in effective and eco-friendly control of downy mildew in muskmelon.
Keywords: Muskmelon, systemic acquired resistance, salicylic acid, Jasmonic acid,βamino butyric acids (BABA), Benzothiadiazole (BTH), downymildews.
Wendy Francisca Xavier Martins*and Bernard Felinov Rodrigues
Department of Botany, Goa University, Goa 403 206
This study was conducted to assess arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal diversity associated with rice ( Oryza sativa L.) cultivated in the Khazan lands in Goa.AM fungi ( Glomeromycota) are vital components of almost all terrestrial ecosystems, forming a mutualistic symbiosis with roots of more than 80% of vascular plants including agronomically important species. Roots of rice varieties from six different agricultural sites were found to be colonized, with AM fungi ranging from 18.0% to 98.0%. Variety Korgut showed the least mycorrhizal colonization while maximum colonization was recorded in variety Jyoti. AM fungal species belonging to four genera viz., Acaulospora , Glomus, Funneliformis and Entrophospora were recorded from the rhizosphere soils and Acaulospora being the dominant genus.
Key words: Root colonization, spore density, endomycorrhiza
Sharda Sahu and Anil Prakash*
(Submitted on February 15, 2018;Accepted on March 20, 2018)
Chaetomium globosum is a ubiquitous fungus that occurs on a wide variety of substrates, and is recognized as cellulolytic and/or endophytic. C. globosum has been also explored as a source of secondary metabolites with various biological activities, having considerable potential inagricultural, medicinal and industrial field. This species of Chaetomium is also well known for hydrolytic enzymes and plant growth promotion attributes including biocontrol against phytopathogens, and helping in phytonutrition. Chaetomium globosum has also been used extensively for cytotoxic and phytoxic drug discoveries. This review is focused on the research being carried out on biology and potential applications of C.globosum with emphasis on its role in plant and human health.
Key words: Chaetomium globosum,biocontrol, phytonutrition, cytotoxic
ShambhuKumar1* , RaghvendraSingh 2, Dharmendra P. Singh3 and Kamal4
1Forest Pathology Department, KSCSTE-Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi-680653, Thrissur, Kerala, India.
2Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, Uttar Pradesh,India.
(Submitted on January 12, 2018 ; Accepted on May 10, 2018)
Crousobrauniella longispora gen. et. sp. nov., discovered on living leaves of Shorea robusta (Dipterocarpaceae) from the Terai forest (subtropicalforest) of Uttar Pradesh, India, is described, illustrated and discussed. This genus is characterized by pleuriseptate, long-necked conidiophores with flask-shaped basal cells that develop as lateral branches from superficial hyphae, giving rise to long, flexuous, euseptate conidia. This new taxon is compared with all the similar asexual hyphomycetous genera.
Keywords: Fungal diversity, foliicolous, morphotaxonomy, new genus, new species.
Maninder Kaur, Ramandeep Kaur,Avneet Pal Singh* and Gurpaul Singh Dhingra
(Submitted on February 10, 2018;Accepted onApril 27, 2018)
Four species of genus Sistotrema Fr. i.e. S. brinkmannii (Bres.) J. Erikss., S. diademiferum (Bourd. & Galz.) Donk, S. kirghizicum (Parmasto) Domanski and S. porulosum Hallenb. have been described and illustrated. Of these, S. diademiferum and S. kirghizicum are new records for India and S. porulosum is the first report from the study area. A key to all the known species of genus Sistrotrema from the study area is also provided.
Keywords: Basidiomycota,Hydnaceae,Cantharellales, Himalaya, Himachal Pradesh.
Revanth Babu Pallam, Vaibhav Arun, T.Bhanuteja, M. Niranjan, B. Devadatha and V. V. Sarma*
(Submitted on January 12, 2018;Accepted onApril 17, 2018)
Azo dyes are extensively used in textile industry to dye the fabrics. The unbound dye enters into the environment through textile industry effluents and contaminates the surrounding water bodies. Azo dyes are known to be cytotoxic and genotoxic to living beings. High amount of energy is required to break the stable N=N- bond of azo dyes. Microbial degradation of azo dyes by bacteria and fungi have been extensively studied. The present study was carried out employing 12 fungal strains, each of 6 from terrestrial and mangrove forests for decolorization of azo dyes. Laccase and peroxidase assays were performed to identify the positive strains. Diaporthe sp. of terrestrial forests and Trimmatostroma sp. of marine origin were positive for laccase assay while none of the other strains were positive for peroxidase test. Azo dye degradation studies were performed with positive Laccase fungal strains. Three azo dyes namely, Congo red, Crystal violet and Remazol brilliant blue were chosen for degradation studies. Degradation studies were performed with individual dyes at 12.5 and 25 µg/mL concentrations. The 25 µg/mLconcentration of Azo dyes was used to study the pH optima at 5,6,7,8 range by keeping temperature constant at 28 oC and by incubating the treatments between 1 and 7 days to select the optimum conditions forAzo dye degradation by the selected fungi. Diaporthe sp. could degrade the azo dyes at pH 5 and/or 6 whereas Trimmatostroma sp.at pH 7 and/or 8 to the maximum extent at the end of the 7 th day.
Keywords: Congo red, Crystal violet,Diaporthesp, Laccase, Remazol Brilliant blue,Trimmatostromasp,.
K.J. Nandan Patel, SyedAbrar, Sunil Kumar and M. Krishnappa*
Department of P.G Studies and Research in Applied Botany, Jnana Sahyadri, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Shivamogha.
(Submitted on January 12, 2017;Accepted on March 20, 2018)
A study was conducted in the forest regions of Chikmagalur district of Karnataka, India, to explore the diversity of macrofungi in Balehonnur forest regions. The rich canopy of forest favours the luxuriant growth of macro fungi. In the present investigation an interesting coprophilous ascomycetes belonging to Xylariaceae was noticed. Sporocarps were collected from elephant dung, analysed and characterized on the basis of morphological and microscopic characters.
Keywords: Ascomycota, diversity, coprophilous,Xylariaceae.
Maheshwari1 ,RajagopalKalyanaraman 2, Balakrishnan Meenashree 4* andA., Tuwar3
1Department of Botany, Vinayaga Mission University, Salem, India.
2PG and Research Department of Botany, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda College (Autonomous), Mylapore, Chennai-600004, India.
3Department of Botany, Sonai College, Ahmadnagar, Maharashtra, India
(Submitted on February 25, 2018;Accepted on May 20, 2018)
Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf and bark (phellophyte- endophytic fungi of bark) tissues of the monocotyledon tree, Areca catechu L. growing in two different habitats. Five hundred leaf and bark segments were screened for endophytic fungi. A total of 305 endophytic fungal isolates representing 27 different fungal taxa were isolated. Leaf tissue had more endophytic fungi than the bark tissue. Hyphomycetes were the most dominant group in this study followed by Coelomycetes, Ascomycetes, Zygomycetes and sterile mycelia. Both the habitats had few common endophytic fungi and some appeared to be host and habitat specific.
Key words: Areca catechu, leaf, bark, endophytic fungi,Hyphomycetes, habitat
M. Niranjan and V. Venkateswara Sarma*
Department of Biotechnology, Pondicherry University, Kalapet, Pondicherry-605014, India
(Submitted on April 20, 2018;Accepted on June 25, 2018)
Andaman and Nicobar Islands, also known as Bay Islands, stretching over 800 km in Bay of Bengal and comprising 572 islands have rich flora and fauna. The biodiversity of filamentous saprophytic ascomycetous fungi colonizing woody plant litter is being investigated. Examination of the dead and decaying twig samples of different tree plant species fallen on the forest floor in South, Middle and North Andaman Islands resulted in 12 new fungal species, which are described and illustrated in this paper. These include Botryobambusa appendiculispora sp. nov., Brunneiapiospora appendiculata sp. nov., Cilioplea macrospora sp. nov., Cryptascoma shodasabeejae sp. nov., Diatrypella macroasca sp. nov., Leptosphaeria sadvibhajanabeejae sp. nov., Leptosphaeria verruculosa sp. nov., Montagnula vakrabeejae sp. nov., Ostreichnion beejakoshae sp. nov., Rizalia falcata sp. nov., Rosellinia attenuata sp. nov. and Rosellinia tetraspora sp. nov. These new fungal species belong to ten genera, ten families, six orders and two classes. Among these six are unitunicate ascomycetous fungi while the other six are bitunicate fungi.
Keywords: Dothideomycetes, Sordariomycetes, taxonomy, terrestrial fungi, woody litter