From the Editor's Desk
While releasing the 46 volume of Kavaka being transactions of Mycological Society of India, I promised to add efficiency to the editorial process by initiating online manuscript submission and processing. In the beginning of the year 2017 an independent portal http://www.kavaka.fungiindia.co.in
was started so as to initiate the manuscript processing through open journal system (OJS). With the cooperation of the contributors the editorial office has started receiving manuscripts through this newly started portal. All the manuscripts to be included in Volume 49 scheduled for release in December, 2017 are being processed through open Journal system. The members of Mycological Society of India are requested to avail this facility. For this purpose the website can be assessed either directly or through the portal available on the homepage of the official website of Mycological Society of India (http://www.fungiindia.co.in). Before submitting the manuscript the contributor is required to register which is an obligatory requirement. My sincere thanks are due to all the authors of the articles and the reviewers for their cooperation in various ways without which timely release of the journal would not have been possible.
June 30, 2017
Department of Botany
KAVAKA 48(1): 1-9 (2017)
Fungal Endophytes: An Eclectic Review
T. S. Suryanarayanan
Vivekananda Institute of Tropical Mycology (VINSTROM), RKM Vidyapith, Chennai-
The horizontally transmitted fungal endophytes, especially the members of Ascomycota , establish endosymbiotic relationship with plants of all lineages. Endophytes are universal in their occurrence and have been reported from plants from different habitats. Their ability to elaborate an array of secondary metabolites showing different desirable biological activities has resulted in studying these fungi for technological use. It is imperative that we conduct basic studies to acquire information about the biology of endophytes to harness more profitably their technological traits.
Keywords: Fungal ecology, fungus-plant interaction, biotechnology, bioactive compounds
Ten new records of lichen species in the genus Sticta (Lobariaceae) for Taiwan
Wan Lin1 , Chung-Kang Lin2 , Chang-Hsin Kuo3 ,Chi-Yu Chen4 , and TeikKhiang Goh3
1 Department of Biological Resources, National Chiayi University), 300 Syuefu Road, Chiayi City 60004, Taiwan
2 National Museum of Natural Science, 1, Guancian Rd., Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C.
3 Department of Plant Medicine, National Chiayi University, 300 Syuefu Road, Chiayi City 60004, Taiwan
4 Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, 145 Xingda Road, South District, Taichung City 402, Taiwan, R.O.C.
(Submitted in November, 2016; Accepted on May 13, 2017)
This paper is part of a study of lichen species from Taiwan. Ten species in the genus Sticta (Schreber) Ach. are described and illustrated in this paper, and they represent new records for Taiwan. They are foliose lichens belonging to the Family Lobariaceae. The species are Sticta beauvoisii Delise, S. carolinensis T. McDonald, S. cyphellulata (Müll. Arg.) Hue, S. filix (Sw.) Nyl., S. hypochra Vainio, S. marginifera Mont., S. martini D.J. Galloway, S. myrioloba (Müll. Arg.) D.J. Galloway, S. sayeri Müll .Arg. and S. sublimbata(Steiner) Swinscow & Krog
KEYWORDS: Cyphellae, foliose lichens, Lobariaceae, morphology, taxonomy
Pattern of Fungal Colonization and Co-occurrence on Avicennia officinalis Woody Litter in a South-
western Mangrove of India
G.L. Maria and K.R. Sridhar*
Department of Botany, St. Agnes College, Mangalore 575 002, Karnataka, India
Department of Biosciences, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574 199, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
(Submitted in January, 2017; Accepted on June 17, 2017)
This study outlines the pattern of colonization and co-occurrence of saprophytic fungi on woody litter of Avicennia officinalis tree species in Nethravathi mangrove. Two types of woody litter (naturally and artificially submerged) during two seasons (monsoon and summer) were assessed. Natural woody litter consists of 57 fungal species, while it was 34 species in submerged woody litter. Composition of fungi was a mosaic of typical marine and terrestrial fungi. Higher number of fungi (teleomorphs, anamorphs and core-group species) was found in natural than submerged wood, so also during monsoon than summer. Eight species (Aniptodera sp., Lignincola laevis, Lulworthia grandispora, Savoryella lignicola, S. paucispora, Tricladium linderi, Tirispora sp. and Zalerion varia) were common to natural and submerged wood in both seasons. The Shannon diversity was higher during monsoon than summer irrespective of type of wood assessed. The co-occurrence of fungi per wood was maximum up to 8 and 11 species during monsoon in submerged and natural wood, respectively. The pattern of three fungal species co- occurrence was also similar to overall colonization on woody litter. In both wood types, three species co-occurrence was the highest in both seasons. Per cent co-occurrence of 20 core-group species showed dominance in natural than in submerged wood, so also during monsoon than summer. Single species occurrence of core-group fungi on woody litter was as low as 0% (16 core-group fungi on either of wood or season) and 12% (Lignincola laevis). The core-group fungus L. laevis co-occurred up to a maximum of 72% during summer in natural wood which reveals its compatibility and accommodating ability with other associated fungi. Overall, this study reveals that the colonization and co-occurrence of fungi on woody litter in mangroves are dependent on the type of woody litter as well as the monitoring season.
Keywords: Diversity, mangrove fungi, species assemblage, species consortia, core-group fungi, monsoon, summer
Clonostachys indicus sp. nov. from India*
Indu Bhushan Prasher and Radha Chauhan
Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, India
Post Graduate Government College for Girls, Sector- 42D, Chandigarh-160036.*
Clonostachys indicus sp. nov. is described and illustrated from pure culture, obtained from bark of twigs of Ficus virens (Miq.) Domin, collected from Chandigarh, India. The new species was disguised by morphological and in vitro cultural characters from its related species. Additionally, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequence analysis support this species as distinct within Clonostachys. A comprehensive table of Clonostachys species possessing dimorphic conidiophores has been provided.
KEYWORDS: Hyphomycete, conidia, conidiophores, systematic, ITS
KAVAKA 48(1):27-32 (2017)
The health benefits of Cordyceps militaris - a review
Aarti Mehra, Kamal U.Zaidi*, Abin Mani and Vijay Thawani
Biotechnology Pharmacology Laboratory, Center for Scientific Research and Development, People's University, Bhopal-462037, India
(Submitted in November, 2016; Accepted on June 22, 2017)
Cordyceps militaris, a macro fungus is medicinally important for having potential therapeutic applications. Its medicinal properties are due to variety of therapeutically important constituents including cordycepin, cordymin, ergosterol, glycoprotein, polysaccharides, as a part of its composition. This review focuses on the pharmacological properties of Cordyceps militaris explored by different workers from time to time.
Keywords: Cordyceps militaris, Bioactive compound, Cancer, Cordymin, Polysaccharides
Sheetal Chanyal and Pavan Kumar Agrawal*
Department of Biotechnology G.B. Pant Engineering College, Ghurdauri, Pauri, Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India
(Submitted in November, 2016; Accepted on June 2, 2017)
In view of application of laccase in bioremediation of textile dyes, a total of six endophytic fungi were isolated from needle of healthy Gymnosperm plant,Cupressus torulosa D. Don of Garhwal, Himalayan region. The colonization rate of these fungi on PDA was higher for various sampling sites in S1 (90) >S2(60) > S3 (40) but colonization rate of fungi in KMM was S3(73) > S1(60)> S2(40). All endophytic fungi were screened for laccase assay as it plays a crucial role in detoxification of toxic dye for human health. Out of six fungi only one endophytic fungus known as KCT34 showed significant laccase activity in solid and liquid media. Initial screening on the malt extract agar plates supplemented with 200 mg L−1 of each Congo red, Rosebangal, Orange G and Rhodamine B dye showed that KCT34 was able to decolorize all of the four dyes. Quantitative analysis of the dye decolorization showed that KCT34 was able to decolorize textile dyes efficiently and dye decolorization percentage was maximum on 16th day with percentage ranging from 90.45% for Congo red, 87.91% for Rose bangal, 85.81% for Orange G and 54.39% for Rhodamine B. Molecular identification of the fungal isolate KCT34 using primer ITS1 and ITS4 showed 99% sequence similarity with Daldinia sp, an Ascomycetous fungus. The ability to decolorize different types of textile dyes by the isolated Daldinia sp. suggested a possible application of fungal endophytes in the decolorization of dyestuff effluents from textile, food and aquaculture industries.
Keywords: Decolorization, Laccase, bioremediation, textile dye, endophytic fungi, Daldinia sp.
A new species of lichenicolous fungus Epicladonia from India
Yogesh Joshi*, Arti Falswal and Rachna Joshi
Department of Botany, S.S.J. Campus, Kumaun University, Almora 263601, Uttarakhand, India
(Submitted in December, 2016; Accepted on June 12, 2017)
A new species of lichenicolous fungus Epicladonia heterodermiae characterized by superficial conidiomata arising in stromata on the apothecial disc of Heterodermia, with 0-(2) septate, hyaline, narrowly ellipsoid, conidia (9-10 × 2-2.5 μm) with 1-2 guttules is described as new to science from India. A key to so far known species of this genus is also provided.
Keywords: Heterodermia, parasite, secondary fungi
Occurrence, Distribution and Bioactive Potential of Mangrove Fungal Endophytes: An Appraisal
Department of Plant Science, Bharathidasan Govt. College for Women (Autonomous), Puducherry 605003, India
(Submitted in October, 2016; Accepted on June 10, 2017)
Around 30 different mangrove species have been screened for fungal endophytes from different geographical locations that have revealed that the genera of fungi isolated from terrestrial plants are also present in the mangroves, especially, Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Sporormiella, etc. Species belonging to mangrove Rhizophora from different geographical locations, have been studied for fungal endophytes. Mangrove fungal endophytes have been studied for the production of bioactive compounds, which has resulted in recording of a wide array of compounds having antibiofilm, anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral and insecticidal activities. An appraisal has been presented on these aspects in this paper.
Keywords: Endophytes, bioactive compounds, mangroves, Rhizophora
Passalora rhamnaecearum comb.nov. (Capnodiales, Mycosphaerellaceae) from India
Raghvendra Singh and Shambhu Kumar*
Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U.P., India
* Forest Pathology Department, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, Thrissur, Kerala, India
(Submitted in October, 2016; Accepted on June 15, 2017)
The hyphomycete Phaeoramularia rhamnaecearum is recombined as Passalora rhamnaecearum based on critical re-examinations of type collections. The species was originally collected on leaves of Ziziphus jujuba during a taxonomic survey carried out in Pankaj Nursery at Sagar, India.
Key words:Anamorph, new combination, Passalora, taxonomy
Characterization of a mutant of a unique predicted protein essential for virulence in Botrytis cinerea
Esha Sharma and Rupam Kapoor*
Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India
(Submitted in May, 2017; Accepted on June 15, 2017)
A nonpathogenic mutant of Botrytis cinerea was obtained by insertional mutagenesis using Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. The mutant (Bcnpm) was deficient in expression of a predicted protein unique to B. cinerea. No disease symptoms were observed on tomato plants inoculated with Bcnpm. Bcnpm exhibited reduced ability to penetrate and colonize leaf tissue as compared to its wild type (WT). The concentration of oxalic acid was considerably reduced in Bcnpm. The tomato plants inoculated with Bcnpm provoked lesser oxidative damage in terms of H 2 O 2 production and lipid peroxidation. The magnitude of defence response elicited by Bcnpm was far lesser than that from WT. Bcnpm inoculated plants possessed lower concentration of phenols and reduced activities of defence and antioxidative enzymes. Additionally, qRT-PCR analysis revealed lesser transcript levels of some defence related genes in Bcnpm as compared to WT. It was further observed that pre-inoculation of tomato plants with Bcnpm offered protection to plants challenged with biotic stress. The mechanism behind this protective ability could be induced resistance which might have resulted in priming the plant defence response.
Keywords: Botrytis cinerea, predicted protein, non-pathogenic mutant, virulence, Oxalic acid, protective ability
Some New Reports of Resupinate Non-Poroid Agaricomycetous Fungi From Punjab and Adjoining Areas
Gurpreet Kaur, Avneet Pal Singh* and Gurpaul Singh Dhingra
Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002 (Punjab), India
(Submitted in January, 2017; Accepted on April 10, 2017)
An account of five species [Athelia decipiens (Höhn. & Litsch.) J. Erikss., Clavulicium macounii (Burt) J. Erikss. & Boidin ex Parmasto, C. venosum (Berk. & Ravenel) Ginns, Lindtneria chordulata (D.P. Rogers) Hjortstam and Piloderma lanatum (Jül.) J. Erikss. & Hjortstam] of resupinate non-poroid Agaricomycetous fungi is given here based on collections made from different localities of Punjab and adjoining areas. All the five species are described and illustrated for the first time from the study area. Of these, Clavulicium venosum, Lindtneria chordulata and Piloderma lanatum are new records for India.
Keywords: Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes, wood rotting fungi, corticioid fungi